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Standard Guide for Conducting Bioconcentration Tests with Fishes and Saltwater Bivalve MollusksPřeložit název
NORMA vydána dne 1.4.2022
Označení normy: ASTM E1022-22
Datum vydání normy: 1.4.2022
Kód zboží: NS-1065062
Počet stran: 19
Přibližná hmotnost: 57 g (0.13 liber)
Země: Americká technická norma
Kategorie: Technické normy ASTM
bioaccumulation, bioconcentration, bioconcentration factor (BCF), bivalve mollusks, depuration phase, fishes, uptake phase ,
|Significance and Use|
5.1A bioconcentration test is conducted to obtain information concerning the ability of an aquatic species to accumulate a test material directly from water. This guide provides guidance for designing bioconcentration tests on the properties of the test material so that each material is tested in a cost-effective manner.
5.2Because steady-state is usually approached from the low side and the definition of apparent steady-state is based on a statistical hypothesis test, the apparent steady-state BCF will usually be lower than the steady-state BCF. With the variation and sample sizes commonly used in bioconcentration tests, the actual steady-state BCF will usually be no more than twice the apparent BCF.
5.3When both are determined in the same test, the projected steady-state BCF will usually be higher than the apparent steady-state BCF because the models used to calculate the projected BCF assume that the BCF steadily increases until infinite time.
5.4The BCFs and rates and extents of uptake and depuration will depend on temperature, water quality, the species and its size, physiological condition, age, and other factors 5.5Results of bioconcentration tests are used to predict concentrations likely to occur in aquatic organisms in field situations as a result of exposure under comparable conditions, except that mobile organisms might avoid exposure when possible. Under the experimental conditions, particulate matter is deliberately minimized compared to natural water systems. Exposure conditions for the tests may therefore not be comparable for an organic chemical that has a high octanol-water partition coefficient or for an inorganic chemical that sorbs substantially onto particulate matter. The amount of the test substance in solution is thereby reduced in both cases, and therefore the material is less available to many organisms. However, sorption might increase bioaccumulation by aquatic species that ingest particulate matter 5.6Results of bioconcentration tests can be used to compare the propensity of different materials to be accumulated. Nonionizable organic chemicals can also be ranked for bioconcentration using correlations that have been reported between steady-state BCFs and physicalchemical properties, such as the octanolwater partition coefficient and solubility in water 5.7Results of bioconcentration tests can also be used to compare the abilities of different species to accumulate materials. At steady-state the concentration of a nonionizable organic chemical in individual organisms, and in various tissues within an organism, will probably be related to the concentration of lipids in the organisms and tissues (6).
5.8Results of bioconcentration tests might be an important consideration when assessing hazard (see Guide E1023) or deriving water-quality criteria because consumer animals might be adversely affected by ingesting aquatic organisms that contain toxic materials. However, assessment of hazard to consumer organisms must take into account not only the quantity of material accumulated in tissues of aquatic organisms, but also the toxicity of the material to the consumer. Further, humans eat only certain portions of most aquatic organisms, whereas other predators often consume additional tissues.
5.9Bioconcentration tests might be useful for studying structureactivity relationships between test materials, biological availability, metabolism of materials in aquatic organisms, and effects of various environmental factors on results of such tests.
5.10Uptake and depuration rate constants might be useful for predicting environmental fate using compartmental models 5.11Tissues collected after organism exposures based on other testing methods might also be considered for determining bioconcentration according to this guide (see Guides E1241, E1688, E2122, E2455, and Test Method E1706).
1.1This guide describes procedures for obtaining laboratory data concerning bioconcentration of a test material added to dilution waterbut not to foodby freshwater and saltwater fishes and saltwater bivalve mollusks using the flow-through technique. These procedures also should be useful for conducting bioconcentration tests with other aquatic species, although modifications might be necessary.
1.2Other modifications of these procedures might be justified by special needs or circumstances. Although using appropriate procedures is more important than following prescribed procedures, the results of tests conducted using unusual procedures are not likely to be comparable to those of many other tests. The comparison of results obtained using modified and unmodified versions of these procedures might provide useful information concerning new concepts and procedures for conducting bioconcentration tests.
1.3These procedures are applicable to all chemicals that can be measured accurately at the necessary concentrations in water and in appropriate tissues. Bioconcentration tests are usually conducted on individual chemicals but can be conducted on mixtures if appropriate measurements can be made. Some techniques described in this guide were developed for tests on non-ionizable organic chemicals (see 22.214.171.124) and might not apply to ionizable or inorganic chemicals.
1.4Results of bioconcentration tests should usually be reported in terms of apparent steady-state and projected steady-state bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and uptake and depuration rate constants. Results should be reported in terms of whole body for fishes and in terms of total soft tissue for bivalve mollusks. For fishes and scallops consumed by humans, some results should also be reported in terms of the edible portion, especially if ingestion of the test material by humans is a major concern. For tests on organic and organometallic chemicals, the percent lipids of the tissue should be reported.
1.5This guide is arranged as follows:
1.6The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.7This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.8This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
|2. Referenced Documents|
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