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Standard Practice for Analysis of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) by Fiber-Coupled Raman SpectroscopyPřeložit název
NORMA vydána dne 1.11.2021
Označení normy: ASTM D7940-21
Datum vydání normy: 1.11.2021
Kód zboží: NS-1043816
Počet stran: 11
Přibližná hmotnost: 33 g (0.07 liber)
Země: Americká technická norma
Kategorie: Technické normy ASTM
BTU, heating value, liquefied natural gas, molecular composition, relative abundance, Raman, spectroscopy, Wobbe Index,, ICS Number Code 75.060 (Natural gas)
|Significance and Use|
5.1The composition of liquefied gaseous fuels (LNG, LPG) is important for custody transfer and production. Compositional determination is used to calculate the heating value, and it is important to ensure regulatory compliance. Compositional determination is also used to optimize the efficiency of liquefied hydrocarbon gas production and ensure the quality of the processed fluids.
5.2Alternatives to compositional measurement using Raman spectroscopy are described in Test Method D1945, Practice D1946, and Test Method D7833.
5.3The advantage of this practice over other standards stated in 5.2, is that Raman spectroscopy can determine composition by directly measuring the liquefied natural gas. Unlike chromatography, no vaporization step is necessary. Since incorrect operation of on-line vaporizers can lead to poor precision and accuracy, elimination of the vaporization step offers a significant improvement in the analysis of LNG.
1.1This practice is for both on-line and laboratory instrument-based determination of composition for liquefied natural gas (LNG) using Raman spectroscopy. Although the procedures in this practice refer specifically to liquids, the basic methodology can also be applied to other light hydrocarbon mixtures in either liquid or gaseous states, provided the data quality objectives and measurement needs are met. From the composition, gas properties such as heating value and the Wobbe index may be calculated. The components commonly determined according to this test method are CH4, C2H6, C3H8, i-C4H10, n-C4H10, iC5H12, n-C5H12. Components heavier than C5 are not measured as part of this practice.
Note 1:Raman spectroscopy does not directly quantify the component percentages of noble gases; however, inert substances can be calculated indirectly by subtracting the sum of the other species from 100%.
1.2UnitsThe values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.3This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.4This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
|2. Referenced Documents|
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