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Standard Practice for In-Line, Full Flow, Inductive Sensor for Ferromagnetic and Non-ferromagnetic Wear Debris Determination and Diagnostics for Aero-Derivative and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine BearingsPřeložit název
NORMA vydána dne 1.4.2022
Označení normy: ASTM D7685-11(2022)
Datum vydání normy: 1.4.2022
Kód zboží: NS-1055882
Počet stran: 16
Přibližná hmotnost: 48 g (0.11 liber)
Země: Americká technická norma
Kategorie: Technické normy ASTM
alarm limits, bearing failure, ferromagnetic debris, gas turbines, in-line, metallic wear debris, non-ferromagnetic debris, sensors, wear particles,, ICS Number Code 49.050 (Aerospace engines and propulsion systems)
|Significance and Use|
4.1This practice is intended for the application of in-line, full-flow inductive wear debris sensors. According to (, passing the entire lubrication oil flow for aircraft and aero-derivative gas turbines through a debris-monitoring device is a preferred approach to ensure sufficient detection efficiency. )
4.2Periodic sampling and analysis of lubricants have long been used as a means to determine overall machinery health 4.3In-line full-flow inductive debris sensors have demonstrated the capability to detect and quantify both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic metallic wear debris. These sensors record metallic wear debris according to size, count, and type (ferromagnetic or non-ferromagnetic). Sensors are available for a variety of oil pipe sizes. The sensors are designed specifically for the protection of rolling element bearings and gears in critical machine applications. Bearings are key elements in machines since their failure often leads to significant secondary damage that can adversely affect safety, operational availability, or operational/maintenance costs, or a combination thereof.
4.4The main advantage of the sensor is the ability to detect early bearing damage and to quantify the severity of damage and rate of progression of failure towards some predefined bearing surface fatigue damage limiting wear scar. Sensor capabilities are summarized as follows:
4.4.1In-line full flow non-intrusive inductive metal detector with no moving parts.
4.4.2Detects both ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic metallic wear debris.
4.4.3Detects 95% or more of metallic wear debris above some minimum particle size threshold.
4.4.4Counts and sizes wear debris detected.
4.5 presents a widely used diagram ( to describe the progress of metallic wear debris release from normal to catastrophic failure. It must be pointed out that this figure summarizes metallic wear debris observations from all the different wear modes that can range from polishing, rubbing, abrasion, adhesion, grinding, scoring, pitting, spalling, etc. As mentioned in numerous references )FIG. 1Wear Debris Characterization
FIG. 2Typical Bearing Spall
4.6In-line wear debris monitoring provides a more reliable and timely indication of bearing distress for a number of reasons:
4.6.1Firstly, bearing failures on rotating machines tend to occur as events often without sufficient warning and could be missed by means of only periodic inspections or data sampling observations.
4.6.2Secondly, since it is the larger wear metallic debris that are being detected, there is a lower probability of false indication from the normal rubbing wear that will be associated with smaller particles.
4.6.3Thirdly, build or residual debris from manufacturing or maintenance actions can be differentiated from actual damage debris because the cumulative debris counts recorded due to the former tend to decrease while those due to the latter tend to increase.
4.6.4Fourthly, bearing failure tests have shown that wear debris size distribution is independent of bearing size. 1.1This practice covers the minimum requirements for an in-line, non-intrusive, through-flow oil debris monitoring system that monitors ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic metallic wear debris from both industrial aero-derivative and aircraft gas turbine engine bearings. Gas turbine engines are rotating machines fitted with high-speed ball and roller bearings that can be the cause of failure modes with high secondary damage potential. ()
1.2Metallic wear debris considered in this practice range in size from 120?m (micron) and greater. Metallic wear debris over 1000?m are sized as over 1000?m.
1.3This practice is suitable for use with the following lubricants: polyol esters, phosphate esters, petroleum industrial gear oils and petroleum crankcase oils.
1.4This practice is for metallic wear debris detection, not cleanliness.
1.5The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are provided for information only.
1.6This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
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