Potřebujeme váš souhlas k využití jednotlivých dat, aby se vám mimo jiné mohly ukazovat informace týkající se vašich zájmů. Souhlas udělíte kliknutím na tlačítko „OK“.
Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))Přeložit název
NORMA vydána dne 1.7.2021
Označení normy: ASTM D698-12(2021)
Datum vydání normy: 1.7.2021
Kód zboží: NS-1029278
Počet stran: 13
Přibližná hmotnost: 39 g (0.09 liber)
Země: Americká technická norma
Kategorie: Technické normy ASTM
Zemní práce. Hloubicí práce. Budování základů. Podzemní práce
compaction characteristics, density, impact compaction, laboratory tests , moisture-density curves, proctor test, soil, soil compaction, standard effort,, ICS Number Code 93.020 (Earth works. Excavations. Foundation construction. Underground works)
|Significance and Use|
5.1Soil placed as engineering fill (embankments, foundation pads, road bases) is compacted to a dense state to obtain satisfactory engineering properties such as, shear strength, compressibility, or permeability. In addition, foundation soils are often compacted to improve their engineering properties. Laboratory compaction tests provide the basis for determining the percent compaction and molding water content needed to achieve the required engineering properties, and for controlling construction to assure that the required compaction and water contents are achieved.
5.2During design of an engineered fill, shear, consolidation, permeability, or other tests require preparation of test specimens by compacting at some molding water content to some unit weight. It is common practice to first determine the optimum water content (5.3Experience indicates that the methods outlined in 5.2 or the construction control aspects discussed in 5.1 are extremely difficult to implement or yield erroneous results when dealing with certain soils. 5.3.1 5.3.3 describe typical problem soils, the problems encountered when dealing with such soils and possible solutions for these problems.
5.3.1Oversize FractionSoils containing more than 30% oversize fraction (material retained on the 3/4-in. (19-mm) sieve) are a problem. For such soils, there is no ASTM test method to control their compaction and very few laboratories are equipped to determine the laboratory maximum unit weight (density) of such soils (USDI Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS). Although Test Methods D4914/D4914M and D5030/D5030M determine the field dry unit weight of such soils, they are difficult and expensive to perform.
18.104.22.168One method to design and control the compaction of such soils is to use a test fill to determine the required degree of compaction and the method to obtain that compaction, followed by use of a method specification to control the compaction. Components of a method specification typically contain the type and size of compaction equipment to be used, the lift thickness, acceptable range in molding water content, and the number of passes.
Note 3:Success in executing the compaction control of an earthwork project, especially when a method specification is used, is highly dependent upon the quality and experience of the contractor and inspector.
22.214.171.124Another method is to apply the use of density correction factors developed by the USDI Bureau of Reclamation 126.96.36.199The use of the replacement technique (Test Method D69878, Method D), in which the oversize fraction is replaced with a finer fraction, is inappropriate to determine the maximum dry unit weight, ?5.3.2DegradationSoils containing particles that degrade during compaction are a problem, especially when more degradation occurs during laboratory compaction than field compaction, as is typical. Degradation typically occurs during the compaction of a granular-residual soil or aggregate. When degradation occurs, the maximum dry-unit weight increases (188.8.131.52Again, for soils subject to degradation, the use of test fills and method specifications may help. Use of replacement techniques is not correct.
5.3.3Gap GradedGap-graded soils (soils containing many large particles with limited small particles) are a problem because the compacted soil will have larger voids than usual. To handle these large voids, standard test methods (laboratory or field) typically have to be modified using engineering judgement.
Note 4:The quality of the result produced by this standard is dependent on the competence of the personnel performing it, and the suitability of the equipment and facilities used. Agencies that meet the criteria of Practice D3740 are generally considered capable of competent and objective testing/sampling/inspection, and the like. Users of this standard are cautioned that compliance with Practice D3740 does not in itself assure reliable results. Reliable results depend on many factors; Practice D3740 provides a means of evaluating some of those factors.
1.1These test methods cover laboratory compaction methods used to determine the relationship between molding water content and dry unit weight of soils (compaction curve) compacted in a 4 or 6-in. (101.6 or 152.4-mm) diameter mold with a 5.50-lbf (24.5-N) rammer dropped from a height of 12.0 in. (305 mm) producing a compactive effort of 12400 ft-lbf/ft3(600 kN-m/m3).
Note 1:The equipment and procedures are similar as those proposed by R. R. Proctor (Engineering News RecordSeptember 7, 1933) with this one major exception: his rammer blows were applied as 12 inch firm strokes instead of free fall, producing variable compactive effort depending on the operator, but probably in the range 15000 to 25000 ft-lbf/ft3(700 to 1200 kN-m/m3). The standard effort test (see 3.1.4) is sometimes referred to as the Proctor Test.
1.1.1Soils and soil-aggregate mixtures are to be regarded as natural occurring fine- or coarse-grained soils, or composites or mixtures of natural soils, or mixtures of natural and processed soils or aggregates such as gravel or crushed rock. Hereafter referred to as either soil or material.
1.2These test methods apply only to soils (materials) that have 30% or less by mass of particles retained on the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve and have not been previously compacted in the laboratory; that is, do not reuse compacted soil.
1.2.1For relationships between unit weights and molding water contents of soils with 30% or less by mass of material retained on the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve to unit weights and molding water contents of the fraction passing 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve, see Practice D4718/D4718M.
1.3Three alternative methods are provided. The method used shall be as indicated in the specification for the material being tested. If no method is specified, the choice should be based on the material gradation.
184.108.40.206Mold4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter.
220.127.116.11MaterialPassing No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve.
18.104.22.168Blows per Layer25.
22.214.171.124UsageMay be used if 25% or less (see 1.4) by mass of the material is retained on the No. 4 (4.75-mm) sieve.
126.96.36.199Other UsageIf this gradation requirement cannot be met, then Method C may be used.
188.8.131.52Mold4-in. (101.6-mm) diameter.
184.108.40.206MaterialPassing 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve.
220.127.116.11Blows per Layer25.
18.104.22.168UsageMay be used if 25% or less (see 1.4) by mass of the material is retained on the 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) sieve.
22.214.171.124Other UsageIf this gradation requirement cannot be met, then Method C may be used.
126.96.36.199Mold6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter.
188.8.131.52MaterialPassing 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve.
184.108.40.206Blows per Layer56.
220.127.116.11UsageMay be used if 30% or less (see 1.4) by mass of the material is retained on the 3/4-in. (19.0-mm) sieve.
1.3.4The 6-in. (152.4-mm) diameter mold shall not be used with Method A or B.
Note 2:Results have been found to vary slightly when a material is tested at the same compactive effort in different size molds, with the smaller mold size typically yielding larger values of density/unit weight (1.4If the test specimen contains more than 5% by mass of oversize fraction (coarse fraction) and the material will not be included in the test, corrections must be made to the unit mass and molding water content of the specimen or to the appropriate field-in-place density test specimen using Practice D4718/D4718M.
1.5This test method will generally produce a well-defined maximum dry unit weight for non-free draining soils. If this test method is used for free-draining soils the maximum unit weight may not be well defined, and can be less than obtained using Test Methods D4253.
1.6All observed and calculated values shall conform to the guidelines for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D6026, unless superseded by this standard.
1.6.1For purposes of comparing measured or calculated value(s) with specified limits, the measured or calculated value(s) shall be rounded to the nearest decimal or significant digits in the specified limits.
1.6.2The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded or calculated, in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that generally should be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the users objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analytical methods for engineering design.
1.7The values in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values stated in SI units are provided for information only, except for units of mass. The units for mass are given in SI units only, g or kg.
1.7.1It is common practice in the engineering profession to concurrently use pounds to represent both a unit of mass (lbm) and a force (lbf). This implicitly combines two separate systems of units; that is, the absolute system and the gravitational system. It is scientifically undesirable to combine the use of two separate sets of inch-pound units within a single standard. This standard has been written using the gravitational system of units when dealing with the inch-pound system. In this system, the pound (lbf) represents a unit of force (weight). However, the use of balances or scales recording pounds of mass (lbm) or the recording of density in lbm/ft3 shall not be regarded as a nonconformance with this standard.
1.8This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.9This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
|2. Referenced Documents|
Poslední aktualizace: 20.03.2023 (Počet položek: 2 799 819)
© Copyright 2023 NORMSERVIS s.r.o.